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While both penis and vagina sizes can vary, these organs can usually accommodate each other. A study found the average erect penis length to be just over 5 inches Some women may report discomfort if their sexual partner has a penis that is larger than average.

It may be painful or uncomfortable if an object such as a penis or sex toy hits the cervix. Having adequate lubrication and communicating any discomfort to a partner can help keep sexual activity pleasurable.

The depth and appearance of vaginas vary greatly between individuals. Usually, the depth of the vagina is between 3 and 7 inches.

The vagina is an organ that is designed to accommodate both childbirth and sexual activity. However, if a woman is experiencing pain during sex due to what she perceives as a shallow vagina, she should talk to her doctor.

Doctors can investigate any underlying causes for the pain, and may refer someone to a specialist.

A specialist may recommend pelvic floor therapy or sex therapy, which can make sex more pleasurable regardless of vaginal depth. Both hormonal and barrier methods of birth control can increase the risk of a yeast infection.

Symptoms include itching, redness, and swelling around…. Research shines a light on many of the mysteries surrounding the female orgasm and reveals just how much women differ in their sexual preferences.

Vaginal gas occurs when air becomes trapped in the vagina. While it can cause embarrassment for the women experiencing it, vaginal gas is common and….

Sometimes women feel vaginal tightness, but can a vagina be too tight? Learn about what thick, white, clear, or colored vaginal discharge means for a person's health, as well as how to prevent unhealthy discharge.

How deep is a vagina? What to know. Size and appearance What affects size? Size and appearance of the vagina. Share on Pinterest The depth of the vagina is measured from the opening of the vagina to the tip of the cervix, which opens into the uterus.

What affects vaginal size? How does the vagina change over time? Share on Pinterest Studies have not found a difference in vaginal length in women who have given birth and those who have not.

Vagina size and penis length. Self-care tips. Share on Pinterest Changing pads and tampons frequently will help to keep the vagina healthy.

Latest news Older men need to hydrate even when they are not thirsty. Mice with diabetes successfully treated with electromagnetic fields.

Related Coverage. In this case, paroxysm was regarded as a medical treatment, and not a sexual release. The vagina and vulva have been given many vulgar names, three of which are cunt , twat , and pussy.

Cunt is also used as a derogatory epithet referring to people of either sex. This usage is relatively recent, dating from the late nineteenth century.

The vagina loquens , or "talking vagina", is a significant tradition in literature and art, dating back to the ancient folklore motifs of the "talking cunt".

These carry the implication that sexual intercourse might result in injury, emasculation , or castration for the man involved. These stories were frequently told as cautionary tales warning of the dangers of unknown women and to discourage rape.

The outer form is a giant, reclining sculpture of a woman which visitors can enter through a door-sized vaginal opening between her spread legs.

The Vagina Monologues , a episodic play by Eve Ensler , has contributed to making female sexuality a topic of public discourse. It is made up of a varying number of monologues read by a number of women.

Initially, Ensler performed every monologue herself, with subsequent performances featuring three actresses; latter versions feature a different actress for every role.

Each of the monologues deals with an aspect of the feminine experience , touching on matters such as sexual activity, love, rape, menstruation, female genital mutilation, masturbation, birth, orgasm, the various common names for the vagina, or simply as a physical aspect of the body.

A recurring theme throughout the pieces is the vagina as a tool of female empowerment, and the ultimate embodiment of individuality. Societal views, influenced by tradition, a lack of knowledge on anatomy, or sexism , can significantly impact a person's decision to alter their own or another person's genitalia.

Women may want to remain youthful in appearance and sexual function. These views are often influenced by the media, [] [] including pornography , [] and women can have low self-esteem as a result.

Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is genital modification with no health benefits.

A small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, and the vagina is opened up for sexual intercourse and childbirth.

Significant controversy surrounds female genital mutilation, [] [] with the World Health Organization WHO and other health organizations campaigning against the procedures on behalf of human rights , stating that it is "a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes".

Custom and tradition are the most frequently cited reasons for the practice of female genital mutilation. Some cultures believe that female genital mutilation is part of a girl's initiation into adulthood and that not performing it can disrupt social and political cohesion.

The vagina is a structure of animals in which the female is internally fertilized , rather than by traumatic insemination used by some invertebrates.

The shape of the vagina varies among different animals. In placental mammals and marsupials , the vagina leads from the uterus to the exterior of the female body.

Female marsupials have two lateral vaginas , which lead to separate uteri, but both open externally through the same orifice; a third canal, which is known as the median vagina, and can be transitory or permanent, is used for birth.

Instead, the vagina exits through the clitoris , allowing the females to urinate, copulate and give birth through the clitoris. Birds, monotremes, and some reptiles have a part of the oviduct that leads to the cloaca.

The vagina extends upward from the aperture and becomes the egg gland. In insects and other invertebrates , the vagina can be a part of the oviduct see insect reproductive system.

A lack of research on the vagina and other female genitalia, especially for different animals, has stifled knowledge on female sexual anatomy.

By contrast, female genitals are more often concealed, and require more dissection, which in turn requires more time. Non-human primates are optimal models for human biomedical research because humans and non-human primates share physiological characteristics as a result of evolution.

Estrogens and progestogens in the menstrual cycles and during premenarche and postmenopause are also similar in female humans and macaques; however, only in macaques does keratinization of the epithelium occur during the follicular phase.

Another is that such conditions' causes are inextricably bound to humans' genetic makeup, making results from other species difficult to apply to humans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the birth canal. For the external female sex organs, see vulva.

For other uses, see Vagina disambiguation. Vulva with pubic hair removed and labia separated to show the opening of the vagina: Clitoral hood Clitoris Labia minora Urethral opening Vaginal opening Perineum Anus.

Sympathetic: lumbar splanchnic plexus Parasympathetic: pelvic splanchnic plexus. See also: Vaginal support structures.

Main article: Human vaginal size. Further information: Development of the reproductive system. Main article: Vaginal epithelium.

Main articles: Vaginal discharge and Vaginal lubrication. Further information: Human sexual activity and Human female sexuality.

Main article: Childbirth. Main article: Vaginal flora. Further information: List of microbiota species of the lower reproductive tract of women.

Main articles: Vaginal disease and Safe sex. See also: Vaginal atresia. See also: Eurotophobia. Main article: Vagina and vulva in art.

See also: Genital modification and mutilation. Human sexuality portal Anatomy portal. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press.

Random House Reference. Forensic Gynaecology. Cambridge University Press. Health Humanities Reader. Rutgers University Press. Sage Publications. Little thought apparently has been devoted to the nature of female genitals in general, likely accounting for the reason that most people use incorrect terms when referring to female external genitals.

The term typically used to talk about female genitals is vagina , which is actually an internal sexual structure, the muscular passageway leading outside from the uterus.

The correct term for the female external genitals is vulva , as discussed in chapter 6, which includes the clitoris, labia majora, and labia minora.

In addition, there is a current lack of appropriate vocabulary to refer to the external female genitals, using, for example, 'vagina' and 'vulva' as if they were synonyms, as if using these terms incorrectly were harmless to the sexual and psychological development of women.

DC Dutta's Textbook of Gynecology. JP Medical Ltd. Gray's Basic Anatomy E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Cancer and Sexual Health.

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Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Handbook: Production and Processes. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.

Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse. Dartmouth Medical School. Cancer Management and Research. Office of Women's Health.

December 23, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved June 25, In Gupta RC ed. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 6th ed. Glenview, IL: Pearson Education.

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems 8th ed. Belmont, California: Cengage. Lexington Books. Biology of Women. Cengage Learning.

Archived from the original on June 28, Pelvic Floor Disorders. Handbook for Conducting Research on Human Sexuality. Psychology Press.

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues Updated ed. Clinical Neurology of the Older Adult. Love, Sex and Everything in Between.

Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Archived from the original on June 14, Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. Archived from the original on June 27, Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society.

Discovery Series: Human Sexuality. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity 1st ed. An Invitation to Health 1st ed. Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual vaginal intercourse.

But occasionally we hear people speak of 'technical virginity' [ Rosenthal M Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society 1st ed.

Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. The Big Book of Sex Toys. Archived from the original on September 5, Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body.

Greenwood Publishing Group. The Journal of Urology. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. The Reproductive System at a Glance. Color Atlas of Physiology.

The Pregnant Body Book. Our Bodies, Ourselves: Pregnancy and Birth. Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology. Department of Health and Human Services.

February 1, Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 15, Maternity and Pediatric Nursing. Journal of Women's Health. Frontiers in Physiology.

Pharmacology for Women's Health. Boston: Pearson. National Cancer Institute. February 2, Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved January 5, Da Capo Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 19, Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement".

Annals of Internal Medicine. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. American Cancer Society. November 1, Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved January 7, Retrieved January 4, Anatomy Workbook.

World Scientific Publishing Company. Hoffman, Barbara L. December 13, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Drug Delivery Systems 3rd ed. CRC Press. Pharmacology for Nursing Care. International Urogynecology Journal.

January 8, Retrieved January 8, In Shaw R ed. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita. Epidemiologic Reviews. McGraw Hill Professional.

Essentials of Clinical Infectious Diseases. Demos Medical Publishing. Ferri's Clinical Advisor Archived from the original on March 26, An Invitation to Health Brief Archived from the original on December 31, New Dimensions in Women's Health.

Choices in Relationships: Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Sexually Transmitted Infections.

National Institutes of Health. February 9, Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved December 14, Textbook of Gynecology.

October 19, Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology. Berek and Hacker's Gynecologic Oncology. Comprehensive Cytopathology E-Book.

Contemporary Medical-Surgical Nursing. Principles and Practice of Radiation Therapy. Retrieved December 13, National Academies Press. Clinical Gynecologic Oncology.

Davis Company. Women's Gynecologic Health. Human Reproductive Biology. Academic Press. Cancer and sexual health. New York: Humana Press.

Urogynecology and reconstructive pelvic surgery 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. Pharmacology for Nurses. Concise Clinical Pharmacology.

Pharmaceutical Press. Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians - E-Book. Pharmacology for Rehabilitation Professionals - E-Book. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved January 15, Archived from the original on April 22, Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.

Female Genital Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

January 1, Archived from the original on December 7, Retrieved January 31, Archived from the original on January 29, Retrieved January 6, Congenital Müllerian Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management.

Pediatric Surgery. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Frontiers in Surgery. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India.

Techniques in Coloproctology. Report of a case and a brief review of the literature". Investigacion Clinica.

Current Urology Reports. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. BMJ Case Reports. Retrieved February 17, Acta Radiologica Stockholm, Sweden: New England Journal of Medicine.

Gynecologic Pathology. Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, Volume 1. Springer Publishing Company. New Directions in Anthropological Kinship.

Prentice Hall. Viking Canada. The urine flows from the bladder through the urethra to the outside. Little girls often make the common mistake of thinking that they're urinating out of their vaginas.

A woman's urethra is two inches long, while a man's is ten inches long. Wood Lake Publishing. Secret Language of Signs.

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Just as women can have different sized breasts, hands, and feet, the size and depth of vaginas can also vary. According to one study, the average depth of a vagina is about 3.

Other sources suggest that the average range of size may be about 3 to 7 inches approximately 7. In fact, the depth of the vagina from the opening to the tip of the cervix can measure anywhere up to 7 inches Several types of tissue line the inside of the vagina, including the mucosa.

The mucosa is made up of specialized cells that secrete a lubricating fluid, which helps the vaginal walls to stretch. The exterior portion of the female genitals is the vulva.

The vulva includes the labia minora and majora — the lip-like parts of the female genitals. The appearance of vulvas varies widely.

The skin may be the same color or darker than the rest of the body. The clitoris ranges from about 0. It can stretch to accommodate the insertion of a tampon, a finger, or a penis.

During arousal, more blood flows to the vagina. This causes the vagina to elongate and the cervix, or tip of the uterus, to lift up slightly, allowing more of a penis, finger, or sex toy to fit in the vagina.

While a vagina expands during arousal, a large penis or sex toy can still cause discomfort when having sex. The vagina will not change in appearance, as it is internal.

However, the labia may appear smaller over time. This is because the amount of estrogen in the body decreases with age, which can reduce fat and collagen.

The genitals may also appear to change color, becoming lighter or darker with hormonal changes over time. Some women may find that their vagina feels different following childbirth.

While the tissues in the vagina do stretch to accommodate a baby, this is not permanent. Research has found no difference in vaginal length between women who had given birth and those who had not.

If a person thinks their vagina feels different after childbirth, a doctor may recommend Kegel exercises, which involve squeezing and releasing the muscles used to control urination to help strengthen the pelvic floor.

The average erect penis is about 33 percent longer than the average vagina. While both penis and vagina sizes can vary, these organs can usually accommodate each other.

A study found the average erect penis length to be just over 5 inches Some women may report discomfort if their sexual partner has a penis that is larger than average.

It may be painful or uncomfortable if an object such as a penis or sex toy hits the cervix. Having adequate lubrication and communicating any discomfort to a partner can help keep sexual activity pleasurable.

The depth and appearance of vaginas vary greatly between individuals. Usually, the depth of the vagina is between 3 and 7 inches. The vagina is an organ that is designed to accommodate both childbirth and sexual activity.

Near the upper vagina, the cervix protrudes into the vagina on its front surface at approximately a 90 degree angle.

When not sexually aroused , the vagina is a collapsed tube, with the front and back walls placed together. The lateral walls, especially their middle area, are relatively more rigid.

Because of this, the collapsed vagina has an H-shaped cross section. Supporting the vagina are its upper, middle, and lower third muscles and ligaments.

The upper third are the levator ani muscles, and the transcervical, pubocervical , and sacrocervical ligaments. The vaginal opening is at the posterior end of the vulval vestibule , behind the urethral opening.

The opening to the vagina is normally obscured by the labia minora vaginal lips , but may be exposed after vaginal delivery.

The hymen is a membrane of tissue that surrounds or partially covers the vaginal opening. Where it is broken, it may completely disappear or remnants known as carunculae myrtiformes may persist.

Otherwise, being very elastic, it may return to its normal position. For these reasons, virginity cannot be definitively determined by examining the hymen.

The length of the vagina varies among women of child-bearing age. Because of the presence of the cervix in the front wall of the vagina, there is a difference in length between the front wall, approximately 7.

If a woman stands upright, the vaginal canal points in an upward-backward direction and forms an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the uterus.

The vaginal plate is the precursor to the vagina. As the plate grows, it significantly separates the cervix and the urogenital sinus; eventually, the central cells of the plate break down to form the vaginal lumen.

If the lumen does not form, or is incomplete, membranes known as vaginal septae can form across or around the tract, causing obstruction of the outflow tract later in life.

During sexual differentiation , without testosterone , the urogenital sinus persists as the vestibule of the vagina.

The two urogenital folds of the genital tubercle form the labia minora , and the labioscrotal swellings enlarge to form the labia majora. There are conflicting views on the embryologic origin of the vagina.

The majority view is Koff's description, which posits that the upper two-thirds of the vagina originate from the caudal part of the Müllerian duct, while the lower part of the vagina develops from the urogenital sinus.

The vaginal wall from the lumen outwards consists firstly of a mucosa of stratified squamous epithelium that is not keratinized , with a lamina propria a thin layer of connective tissue underneath it.

Secondly, there is a layer of smooth muscle with bundles of circular fibers internal to longitudinal fibers those that run lengthwise.

Lastly, is an outer layer of connective tissue called the adventitia. Some texts list four layers by counting the two sublayers of the mucosa epithelium and lamina propria separately.

The smooth muscular layer within the vagina has a weak contractive force that can create some pressure in the lumen of the vagina; much stronger contractive force, such as during childbirth, comes from muscles in the pelvic floor that are attached to the adventitia around the vagina.

The lamina propria is rich in blood vessels and lymphatic channels. The muscular layer is composed of smooth muscle fibers, with an outer layer of longitudinal muscle, an inner layer of circular muscle, and oblique muscle fibers between.

The outer layer, the adventitia, is a thin dense layer of connective tissue and it blends with loose connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers that are between pelvic organs.

It forms folds transverse ridges or rugae , which are more prominent in the outer third of the vagina; their function is to provide the vagina with increased surface area for extension and stretching.

The epithelium of the ectocervix the portion the uterine cervix extending into the vagina is an extension of, and shares a border with, the vaginal epithelium.

In these mid-layers of the epithelia, the cells begin to lose their mitochondria and other organelles. Under the influence of maternal estrogen, the vagina of a newborn is lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium or mucosa for two to four weeks after birth.

Between then to puberty , the epithelium remains thin with only a few layers of cuboidal cells without glycogen. Flattened squamous cells are more resistant to both abrasion and infection.

The epidermis of the skin is relatively resistant to water because it contains high levels of lipids. The vaginal epithelium contains lower levels of lipids.

This allows the passage of water and water-soluble substances through the tissue. Keratinization happens when the epithelium is exposed to the dry external atmosphere.

Blood is supplied to the vagina mainly via the vaginal artery , which emerges from a branch of the internal iliac artery or the uterine artery.

Two main veins drain blood from the vagina, one on the left and one on the right. These form a network of smaller veins, the vaginal venous plexus , on the sides of the vagina, connecting with similar venous plexuses of the uterus , bladder , and rectum.

These ultimately drain into the internal iliac veins. The nerve supply of the upper vagina is provided by the sympathetic and parasympathetic areas of the pelvic plexus.

The lower vagina is supplied by the pudendal nerve. Vaginal secretions are primarily from the uterus , cervix, and vaginal epithelium in addition to minuscule vaginal lubrication from the Bartholin's glands upon sexual arousal.

The Bartholin's glands, located near the vaginal opening, were originally considered the primary source for vaginal lubrication, but further examination showed that they provide only a few drops of mucus.

This initially forms as sweat-like droplets, and is caused by increased fluid pressure in the tissue of the vagina vasocongestion , resulting in the release of plasma as transudate from the capillaries through the vaginal epithelium.

Before and during ovulation , the mucus glands within the cervix secrete different variations of mucus, which provides an alkaline , fertile environment in the vaginal canal that is favorable to the survival of sperm.

Nerve endings in the vagina can provide pleasurable sensations when the vagina is stimulated during sexual activity.

Women may derive pleasure from one part of the vagina, or from a feeling of closeness and fullness during vaginal penetration. Pleasure can be derived from the vagina in a variety of ways.

In addition to penile penetration, pleasure can come from masturbation , fingering , oral sex cunnilingus , or specific sex positions such as the missionary position or the spoons sex position.

Most women require direct stimulation of the clitoris to orgasm. It is a sex organ of multiplanar structure containing an abundance of nerve endings, with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and extensive supporting tissue to the labia.

Research indicates that it forms a tissue cluster with the vagina. This tissue is perhaps more extensive in some women than in others, which may contribute to orgasms experienced vaginally.

During sexual arousal, and particularly the stimulation of the clitoris, the walls of the vagina lubricate. This begins after ten to thirty seconds of sexual arousal, and increases in amount the longer the woman is aroused.

The vagina lengthens during the arousal, and can continue to lengthen in response to pressure; as the woman becomes fully aroused, the vagina expands in length and width, while the cervix retracts.

An area in the vagina that may be an erogenous zone is the G-spot. It is typically defined as being located at the anterior wall of the vagina, a couple or few inches in from the entrance, and some women experience intense pleasure, and sometimes an orgasm, if this area is stimulated during sexual activity.

The vagina is the birth canal for the delivery of a baby. When labor a physiological process preceding delivery nears, several signs may occur, including vaginal discharge, and the rupture of membranes water breaking that can result in a gush of amniotic fluid [84] or an irregular or small stream of fluid from the vagina.

As the body prepares for childbirth, the cervix softens, thins , moves forward to face the front, and begins to open. This allows the fetus to settle or "drop" into the pelvis.

While these symptoms are likelier to happen after labor has begun for women who have given birth before, they may happen ten to fourteen days before labor in women experiencing labor for the first time.

The fetus begins to lose the support of the cervix when contractions begin. Vaginal births are more common, but if there is a risk of complications a caesarean section C-section may be performed.

The mucosa thickens and rugae return in approximately three weeks once the ovaries regain usual function and estrogen flow is restored. The vaginal opening gapes and is relaxed, until it returns to its approximate pre-pregnant state six to eight weeks after delivery, known as the postpartum period ; however, the vagina will continue to be larger in size than it was previously.

After giving birth, there is a phase of vaginal discharge called lochia that can vary significantly in the amount of loss and its duration but can go on for up to six weeks.

The vaginal flora is a complex ecosystem that changes throughout life, from birth to menopause. The vaginal microbiota resides in and on the outermost layer of the vaginal epithelium.

The vaginal microbiome is dominated by Lactobacillus species. Lactobacilli metabolize the sugar into glucose and lactic acid.

Vaginal health can be assessed during a pelvic examination , along with the health of most of the organs of the female reproductive system. In the United States, Pap test screening is recommended starting around 21 years of age until the age of Pelvic exams are most often performed when there are unexplained symptoms of discharge, pain, unexpected bleeding or urinary problems.

The vagina is assessed internally by the examiner with gloved fingers, before the speculum is inserted, to note the presence of any weakness, lumps or nodules.

Inflammation and discharge are noted if present. During this time, the Skene's and Bartolin's glands are palpated to identify abnormalities in these structures.

After the digital examination of the vagina is complete, the speculum, an instrument to visualize internal structures, is carefully inserted to make the cervix visible.

Lacerations or other injuries to the vagina can occur during sexual assault or other sexual abuse. Sexual assault with objects can damage the vagina and X-ray examination may reveal the presence of foreign objects.

Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the medication is inserted into the vagina as a creme or tablet. Pharmacologically , this has the potential advantage of promoting therapeutic effects primarily in the vagina or nearby structures such as the vaginal portion of cervix with limited systemic adverse effects compared to other routes of administration.

Vaginal rings can also be used to deliver medication, including birth control in contraceptive vaginal rings.

These are inserted into the vagina and provide continuous, low dose and consistent drug levels in the vagina and throughout the body.

Before the baby merges from the womb, an injection for pain control during childbirth may be administered through the vaginal wall and near the pudendal nerve.

Because the pudendal nerve carries motor and sensory fibers that innervate the pelvic muscles, a pudendal nerve block relieves birth pain.

The medicine does not harm the child, and is without significant complications. Vaginal infections or diseases include yeast infection , vaginitis , sexually transmitted infections STIs and cancer.

Lactobacillus gasseri and other Lactobacillus species in the vaginal flora provide some protection from infections by their secretion of bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide.

Because the vagina is self-cleansing, it usually does not need special hygiene. Both types can help avert pregnancy by preventing semen from coming in contact with the vagina.

The vaginal lymph nodes often trap cancerous cells that originate in the vagina. These nodes can be assessed for the presence of disease.

Selective surgical removal rather than total and more invasive removal of vaginal lymph nodes reduces the risk of complications that can accompany more radical surgeries.

These selective nodes act as sentinel lymph nodes. Vaginal cancer and vulvar cancer are very rare, and primarily affect older women.

It may be that their causes are the same. An applicator is inserted into the vagina to allow the administration of radiation as close to the site of the cancer as possible.

Age and hormone levels significantly correlate with the pH of the vagina. The vaginal mucosa thickens and the vaginal pH becomes acidic again.

Girls may also experience a thin, white vaginal discharge called leukorrhea. After menopause, the body produces less estrogen. This causes atrophic vaginitis thinning and inflammation of the vaginal walls , [38] [] which can lead to vaginal itching, burning, bleeding, soreness, or vaginal dryness a decrease in lubrication.

The vascular structures become fewer with advancing age. It is thought that the weakening of the support structures of the vagina is due to the physiological changes in this connective tissue.

Menopausal symptoms can be eased by estrogen-containing vaginal creams, [] non-prescription, non-hormonal medications, [] vaginal estrogen rings such as the Femring , [] or other hormone replacement therapies, [] but there are risks including adverse effects associated with hormone replacement therapy.

Vaginal changes that happen with aging and childbirth include mucosal redundancy, rounding of the posterior aspect of the vagina with shortening of the distance from the distal end of the anal canal to the vaginal opening, diastasis or disruption of the pubococcygeus muscles caused by poor repair of an episiotomy , and blebs that may protrude beyond the area of the vaginal opening.

If a woman has weak pelvic floor muscle support and tissue damage from childbirth or pelvic surgery, a lack of estrogen can further weaken the pelvic muscles and contribute to stress urinary incontinence.

During the third stage of labor, while the infant is being born, the vagina undergoes significant changes. A gush of blood from the vagina may be seen right before the baby is born.

Lacerations to the vagina that can occur during birth vary in depth, severity and the amount of adjacent tissue involvement.

This event can be especially distressing to a new mother. The vagina, including the vaginal opening, may be altered as a result of surgeries such as an episiotomy, vaginectomy , vaginoplasty or labiaplasty.

Any scarring from the procedure is minimal, and long-term problems have not been identified. During an episiotomy, a surgical incision is made during the second stage of labor to enlarge the vaginal opening for the baby to pass through.

The incision is made through the skin, vaginal epithelium, subcutaneous fat, perineal body and superficial transverse perineal muscle and extends from the vagina to the anus.

Women often report pain during sexual intercourse up to three months after laceration repair or an episiotomy. The median incision is a perpendicular cut between the vagina and the anus and is the most common.

The medio-lateral cut takes more time to heal than the median cut. Vaginectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the vagina, and is usually used to treat malignancy.

These surgeries can impact pain, elasticity, vaginal lubrication and sexual arousal. This often resolves after one year but may take longer. Women, especially those who are older and have had multiple births, may choose to surgically correct vaginal laxity.

This surgery has been described as vaginal tightening or rejuvenation. Women who undergo this procedure may unknowingly have a medical issue, such as a prolapse, and an attempt to correct this is also made during the surgery.

Surgery on the vagina can be elective or cosmetic. Women who seek cosmetic surgery can have congenital conditions, physical discomfort or wish to alter the appearance of their genitals.

Concerns over average genital appearance or measurements are largely unavailable and make defining a successful outcome for such surgery difficult.

Although not all intersex conditions require surgical treatment, some choose genital surgery to correct atypical anatomical conditions.

Vaginal anomalies are defects that result in an abnormal or absent vagina. Abnormal openings known as fistulas can cause urine or feces to enter the vagina, resulting in incontinence.

Vaginal evisceration is a serious complication of a vaginal hysterectomy and occurs when the vaginal cuff ruptures , allowing the small intestine to protrude from the vagina.

Cysts may also affect the vagina. Various perceptions of the vagina have existed throughout history, including the belief it is the center of sexual desire , a metaphor for life via birth, inferior to the penis, unappealing to sight or smell, or vulgar.

David Buss , an evolutionary psychologist , stated that because a penis is significantly larger than a clitoris and is readily visible while the vagina is not, and males urinate through the penis, boys are taught from childhood to touch their penises while girls are often taught that they should not touch their own genitalia, which implies that there is harm in doing so.

Buss attributed this as the reason many women are not as familiar with their genitalia, and that researchers assume these sex differences explain why boys learn to masturbate before girls and do so more often.

The word vagina is commonly avoided in conversation, [] and many people are confused about the vagina's anatomy and may be unaware that it is not used for urination.

She argued that women, unlike men, did not have locker room experiences in school where they compared each other's genitals, which is one reason so many women wonder if their genitals are normal.

Negative views of the vagina are simultaneously contrasted by views that it is a powerful symbol of female sexuality, spirituality, or life.

Author Denise Linn stated that the vagina "is a powerful symbol of womanliness, openness, acceptance, and receptivity. It is the inner valley spirit.

This theory made many women feel inadequate, as the majority of women cannot achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone. Reported methods for treatment included a midwife rubbing the walls of the vagina or insertion of the penis or penis-shaped objects into the vagina.

In this case, paroxysm was regarded as a medical treatment, and not a sexual release. The vagina and vulva have been given many vulgar names, three of which are cunt , twat , and pussy.

Cunt is also used as a derogatory epithet referring to people of either sex. This usage is relatively recent, dating from the late nineteenth century.

The vagina loquens , or "talking vagina", is a significant tradition in literature and art, dating back to the ancient folklore motifs of the "talking cunt".

These carry the implication that sexual intercourse might result in injury, emasculation , or castration for the man involved.

These stories were frequently told as cautionary tales warning of the dangers of unknown women and to discourage rape. The outer form is a giant, reclining sculpture of a woman which visitors can enter through a door-sized vaginal opening between her spread legs.

The Vagina Monologues , a episodic play by Eve Ensler , has contributed to making female sexuality a topic of public discourse.

It is made up of a varying number of monologues read by a number of women. Initially, Ensler performed every monologue herself, with subsequent performances featuring three actresses; latter versions feature a different actress for every role.

Each of the monologues deals with an aspect of the feminine experience , touching on matters such as sexual activity, love, rape, menstruation, female genital mutilation, masturbation, birth, orgasm, the various common names for the vagina, or simply as a physical aspect of the body.

A recurring theme throughout the pieces is the vagina as a tool of female empowerment, and the ultimate embodiment of individuality.

Societal views, influenced by tradition, a lack of knowledge on anatomy, or sexism , can significantly impact a person's decision to alter their own or another person's genitalia.

Women may want to remain youthful in appearance and sexual function. These views are often influenced by the media, [] [] including pornography , [] and women can have low self-esteem as a result.

Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is genital modification with no health benefits.

A small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, and the vagina is opened up for sexual intercourse and childbirth.

Significant controversy surrounds female genital mutilation, [] [] with the World Health Organization WHO and other health organizations campaigning against the procedures on behalf of human rights , stating that it is "a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes".

Custom and tradition are the most frequently cited reasons for the practice of female genital mutilation. Some cultures believe that female genital mutilation is part of a girl's initiation into adulthood and that not performing it can disrupt social and political cohesion.

The vagina is a structure of animals in which the female is internally fertilized , rather than by traumatic insemination used by some invertebrates.

The shape of the vagina varies among different animals. In placental mammals and marsupials , the vagina leads from the uterus to the exterior of the female body.

Female marsupials have two lateral vaginas , which lead to separate uteri, but both open externally through the same orifice; a third canal, which is known as the median vagina, and can be transitory or permanent, is used for birth.

Instead, the vagina exits through the clitoris , allowing the females to urinate, copulate and give birth through the clitoris.

Birds, monotremes, and some reptiles have a part of the oviduct that leads to the cloaca. The vagina extends upward from the aperture and becomes the egg gland.

In insects and other invertebrates , the vagina can be a part of the oviduct see insect reproductive system. A lack of research on the vagina and other female genitalia, especially for different animals, has stifled knowledge on female sexual anatomy.

By contrast, female genitals are more often concealed, and require more dissection, which in turn requires more time. Non-human primates are optimal models for human biomedical research because humans and non-human primates share physiological characteristics as a result of evolution.

Estrogens and progestogens in the menstrual cycles and during premenarche and postmenopause are also similar in female humans and macaques; however, only in macaques does keratinization of the epithelium occur during the follicular phase.

Another is that such conditions' causes are inextricably bound to humans' genetic makeup, making results from other species difficult to apply to humans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the birth canal. For the external female sex organs, see vulva. For other uses, see Vagina disambiguation.

Vulva with pubic hair removed and labia separated to show the opening of the vagina: Clitoral hood Clitoris Labia minora Urethral opening Vaginal opening Perineum Anus.

Sympathetic: lumbar splanchnic plexus Parasympathetic: pelvic splanchnic plexus. See also: Vaginal support structures.

Main article: Human vaginal size. Further information: Development of the reproductive system. Main article: Vaginal epithelium.

Main articles: Vaginal discharge and Vaginal lubrication. Further information: Human sexual activity and Human female sexuality.

Main article: Childbirth. Main article: Vaginal flora. Further information: List of microbiota species of the lower reproductive tract of women.

Main articles: Vaginal disease and Safe sex. See also: Vaginal atresia. See also: Eurotophobia. Main article: Vagina and vulva in art. See also: Genital modification and mutilation.

Human sexuality portal Anatomy portal. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. Random House Reference.

Forensic Gynaecology. Cambridge University Press. Health Humanities Reader. Rutgers University Press. Sage Publications. Little thought apparently has been devoted to the nature of female genitals in general, likely accounting for the reason that most people use incorrect terms when referring to female external genitals.

The term typically used to talk about female genitals is vagina , which is actually an internal sexual structure, the muscular passageway leading outside from the uterus.

The correct term for the female external genitals is vulva , as discussed in chapter 6, which includes the clitoris, labia majora, and labia minora.

In addition, there is a current lack of appropriate vocabulary to refer to the external female genitals, using, for example, 'vagina' and 'vulva' as if they were synonyms, as if using these terms incorrectly were harmless to the sexual and psychological development of women.

DC Dutta's Textbook of Gynecology. JP Medical Ltd. Gray's Basic Anatomy E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Cancer and Sexual Health.

Health and Wellness for Life. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Because the vagina is collapsed, it appears H-shaped in cross section.

London: Churchill Livingstone. Oxford Desk Reference: Obstetrics and Gynaecology. OUP Oxford. Simpson's Forensic Medicine 11th ed.

London: Arnold. Clinical protocols in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Essential Anatomy and Physiology in Maternity Care.

Dewhurst's Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Thieme Medical Publishers. General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System.

Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved October 27, Pathology of the Cervix. Environmental Impacts on Reproductive Health and Fertility.

Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. Pathology of the Vulva and Vagina. Management of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women.

Springer New York. Biology of Reproduction. Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract 5th ed.

Robboy's Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Reproductive and developmental toxicology. London: Academic Press.

Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology 12th ed. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Handbook: Production and Processes. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.

Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse. Dartmouth Medical School. Cancer Management and Research. Office of Women's Health.

December 23, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved June 25, In Gupta RC ed. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 6th ed.

Glenview, IL: Pearson Education. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems 8th ed. Belmont, California: Cengage. Lexington Books. Biology of Women.

Cengage Learning. Archived from the original on June 28, Pelvic Floor Disorders.

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